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Why can filter capacitor? What is the principle?

by:SMiLer     2022-01-10
Capacitors in electronic circuit is almost indispensable energy storage element, it has a partition, connecting ac, dc block characteristics of the low frequency. Widely used in the coupling, blocking, bypass, filtering, tuning, energy conversion and automatic control circuit. Familiar with the name meaning in the capacitor in the different circuit, helps us understand electronic circuit diagram. The characteristics of the capacitor is: on the impedance of the direct current (dc) to show the great, the equivalent of impassability. The smaller of alternating current (ac), the higher the frequency impedance. Using the characteristics of the capacitor, we can put in the communication component in the dc filter, so called 'filter'. After filtering, communication components after went back to the power capacitor, capacitor on both sides of the rest is no fluctuations in pure dc. Use the same principle, we can communicate through the capacitor filter signal, remove the dc component, the function is called the 'coupling'. Capacitor and resistor can be used to charge and discharge circuit of time, still can use capacitor and inductor resonant circuit, and so on. Filter capacitor: connect between the positive and negative electrode of dc power supply, to filter out dc power does not need to exchange in composition, make the direct current is smooth. Generally adopt large capacity or tantalum capacitor, electrolytic capacitor in the circuit can also be at the same time and other types of small capacity to filter out high frequency alternating current (ac). Why can filter capacitor? What is the principle? Alternating current (ac) after rectification of the output direct current is not stable, still there is a big pulsating voltage, this is not a smooth direct current will cause the service life of components. Most electronic devices are dependent on a steady direct current, so you need to still need to add filter circuit after the rectifier circuit, to filter out not smooth communication components of direct current (dc), eventually to get a smooth dc output voltage. Filter to be without or inductance, because they all have energy storage capabilities, filtering is to use this function to implement them. As shown in figure a, when u2 voltage of the positive half cycle, diode V conduction. At this point, u2 RL to load power supply not only, still the charging capacitance C. Diode voltage drop is small, negligible analysis again. Because capacitance voltage UC is followed by u2 voltage to a maximum of sine law litres of u2, u2, then continue to sine rule. Because the capacitance C has been in charge, when u2 is declining to sine rule, the capacitance C voltage value is greater than UC u2, namely the UC> u2. Diode V at the moment not as a conducting state, but by the state. The power of the diode V cutoff, RL is not provided u2, but from discharge capacitance C. Capacitors to discharge load RL to index law. When the discharge voltage of UC is less than u2, diode V and conduction, capacitance charging again. So the loop, capacitance C cycle for the charging and discharging process of two, make the output voltage ripple. Above said capacitor discharge, capacitance discharge of fast and slow associated with time factor, time factor is equal to the RL * C. The time coefficient, the greater the capacitance discharge time is long, the output voltage is more stable, thus the higher the average. To get a stable output voltage, in the case of load only, from the perspective of the capacitance. Choose small volume and large capacity of capacitors, this time coefficient increases, the output voltage is stable.
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