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Ultracapacitors principle and prospect

by:SMiLer     2021-01-13
Super capacitor is what? In simple terms, the super capacitor is a very large polarization electrolyte capacitor. The 'big' refers to the capacity, rather than their physical size. Indeed, for ordinary electrolytic capacitor, the capacitance value and/or voltage value, the greater the whole package. Electrolytic capacitors are usually provide micro farads order of magnitude of capacitance values, from about 0. 1 uf to about 1 f, the nominal voltage value of up to 1 KVDC. In general, the higher the rated voltage, the smaller capacitance values, and the greater the capacitance value, the greater the encapsulation, and also may reduce working voltage. Basically, these rules shall also apply to the super capacitor. Super capacitor capacity values in 1 f, working voltage range from 1. 5 v to 160 v or higher. With the increase of capacitance and voltage, the volume will increase. Capacitance values around dozens of ferrari's early super capacitance is large, it is mainly used for large power equipment. Small super capacitor with low voltage work ability is commonly used for short-term standby power of consumer electronic equipment. Although the super capacitors and electrolytic capacitors there are a lot of similarities, but in the electrical properties and physical size also has a big difference. For example, a common 10 uf, 25 VDC rated voltage electrolytic capacitor size may be slightly less than or equal to 1 to 10 f, 2 f. 7 VDC super capacitor. With recent advances in technology, will be increased to 25 super capacitor voltage VDC, size less than one times, according to the specific applications, this volume change might not be significant. In principle, analyze the super capacitance in the super capacitor could be regarded as a rechargeable battery. It can store and its capacity is proportional to the charge, and release charge when required discharge. Super capacitors and electrolytic capacitors is the biggest difference between the electronic double layer architecture, it can achieve a higher capacity. Standard capacitor is the structure of the between two electrodes attached to a metal plate sandwiched between a layer of dielectric layer ( FIG. 1) 。 Different depending on the type of capacitor, the dielectric can be alumina, four tantalum oxide, titanium oxide, barium or polypropylene, polyester, different material determines the different capacity and voltage characteristic. How many of the dielectric and plate will also affect the capacitance, the distance between. Maximum allowable distance between plates, however, limit the number of the dielectric. In this kind of single layer structure, and increase the quantity of the dielectric to increase capacity usually is feasible, there are three kinds of methods, namely increasing width and plate size, increase the packaging length and increasing the plate distance or the combination of the two methods. These three methods will lead to the volume of capacitor, this is to increase capacitance must make a sacrifice. Electric double layer capacitor as its literal meaning can solve the above problems, it is in the same package adds a second dielectric layer, the dielectric layer and the first layer on both sides of the spacer in the middle of the work in parallel. Electric double layer capacitor also adopts nonporous dielectric, such as activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, carbon black gel, and selects the conductive polymers, its storage capacity is much higher than the standard electrolyte materials. Additional layers and more efficient dielectric material of this combination can make the capacitance increased nearly four orders of magnitude. However, super capacitor voltage ability is weak link, is rooted in the dielectric material. In the electric double layer capacitor dielectric particularly thin, only nanometer order of magnitude, so can produce a large surface area, thus forming a larger capacity. But the very thin layer is not with the traditional ideal of dielectric insulation properties, so the lower working voltage.
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