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The structure and characteristics of electrolytic capacitor

by:SMiLer     2021-01-23
The structure and characteristics of electrolytic capacitors, aluminum electrolytic capacitors are polar capacitor its positive plate with aluminum foil, the immersion in the electrolyte to the anode oxidation treatment, the aluminum foil is generated on the surface layer 3 oxidation 2 aluminium film, its thickness is commonly 0. 02 - 0. 03μm。 This layer of oxide film is the medium of electrical insulation between positive and negative plates. Capacitor anode is made of the electrolyte, electrolyte generally consists of boric acid, ammonia and ethylene glycol. To facilitate the capacitor manufacturing, usually the electrolyte solution impregnation on the special paper, with a square one night and soaked in aluminum electrolyte solution of laminating paper together, so that we can more easily in the square one aluminum foil take lead to negative, as shown in figure 4 82 ( a) Shown below. The above positive and negative according to the central axis of the winding, constitute the core of aluminum electrolytic capacitor, then put the core in the aluminum shell encapsulation, constitute the aluminum electrolytic capacitor. In order to keep the electrolyte rongping fluid does not leak, not dry, the aluminum shell of mouth sealed with a rubber plug, as shown in figure 4 82 ( b) Shown below. In order to obtain larger capacitance and volume smaller again, on one side of the anode aluminum foil is formed by chemical etching method bumpy surface, make electrode surface area increases, thus increase the capacitance. Aluminum electrolytic capacitor has the polarity, because on the positive plate of alumina membrane with unidirectional conductivity, only in the positive power of the capacitor anode and the cathode when the power of the cathode, alumina membrane can have the effect of insulating medium. If the polarity of aluminum electrolytic capacitor to reverse, alumina membrane becomes a conductor, electrolytic capacitor can not play a role, not only will due to larger electric current passes through, cause overheating and damage the capacitor. To prevent accidental explosion accident when use aluminum electrolytic capacitors, at the end of the aluminum shell suppression to groove mechanical weakness, once the electrolytic capacitor internal pressure is too high, the weak link of groove will craze, the explosion pressure. Aluminum electrolytic capacitor with polarity, but if the new methods on the structure and process, also can be made into non-polar capacitors. Aluminum electrolytic capacitor has the following characteristics: (1) special capacitance per unit volume is big, the unit capacity of the lowest price. (2) aluminum electrolytic capacitor has a polarity. (3) large dielectric constant, for 7 - commonly 10. (4) capacity error is big, big loss, leakage current is big, and the capacity and loss may change with the temperature change. (5) work intensity is narrow, only suitable for in - 20 ℃ to + 50 ℃ intensity within the scope of work. (5) working voltage is low, the general is 6. 3 - 400 v。 7) the price is not expensive. Suitable for aluminum electrolytic capacitors in dc or pulse circuits of rectifier, filter and audio bypass using.
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