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The function and principle of the capacitor

by:SMiLer     2021-02-03
Through communication in electronic circuit, the capacitor is used to cut off dc, also used to store and release charge to act as a filter, smooth output pulse signals. Small capacity of capacitance, usually used in high frequency circuit, such as radio, transmitter and oscillation in the. The large capacity of capacitor is often used as filter and storage charge. And there is a characteristic, general 1 & mu; F the capacitance of above is electrolytic capacitor, and 1 & mu; F the following capacitance for ceramics, and of course there are other, such as monolithic capacitors, polyester capacitors, small capacity of mica capacitor, etc. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors have a shell, which is filled with electrolyte, and leads to the two electrodes, as is ( +) And negative ( - ) Pole, unlike other capacitors, they shouldn't wrong polarity in the circuit, but not for other capacitor polarity. Two electrodes of the capacitor on the power of positive and negative, respectively, after a while even when the power disconnected, there could still be residual voltage between two pins, can use the multimeter to observe, we say the capacitor to store charge. Establish the voltage between capacitor plates, energy savings, this process is called capacitor charging. Charged electric capacitor has certain voltage at both ends. Dielectric can be air, paper, plastic, or any other non-conductive and prevents the two metal touch each other substances. Capacitor is connected to a battery cathode metal plate will absorb the battery produces electrons. Capacitor is connected to the battery positive electrode on the metal plate to the battery release electrons. , after the completion of charging capacitor and batteries with the same voltage ( If the battery voltage is 1. 5 volts, the capacitor voltage is 1. 5 volts) 。 Capacitance role as one of passive components, its role is the following: 1, the application in the power circuit, realize the bypass, lotus root, filter and energy storage. The following detailed classification of: 1) Bypass the bypass capacitor energy storage device is provided for the local device energy, it can make the output of the voltage regulator homogenization, reduce the workload requirements. As a small rechargeable battery, bypass capacitors can be charged, and discharge to the device. To minimize the impedance to bypass capacitors, try to close to the load device power supply pin and pin. It can effectively prevent the input value is too large and cause the earth potential of raises and noise. Play is ground connection at the voltage drop across the large current burr when. 2) Go lotus root lotus root, also called decoupled. From circuit for, always can be divided into driving source and driven load. If the load capacitance is large, driver circuit to the capacitor charging, discharge, to complete the signal jump, rising along the relatively steep, current is larger, this will absorb a lot of drive current of the power supply current, because in the circuit inductance, resistance ( Especially the inductance on the chip pins, can produce rebound) , the current relative to normal, in fact is a kind of noise, affect the normal work of the level before, this is the so-called coupling. Decoupled capacitance is play the role of a battery, meet the changes of driving circuit current, avoid mutual coupling interference. Combine bypass capacitors and decoupled capacitance will be easier to understand. Bypass capacitors actually also to coupling, just bypass capacitors generally refers to the high frequency bypass, is the article to the switch of high frequency noise in a low impedance leakage prevention ways. High-frequency bypass capacitors tend to be small, according to the resonant frequency is generally take 0. 1μ F, 0。 01μ F, etc. And the capacity of the coupling capacitance, generally larger, may be 10 & mu; F or greater, based on the distributed parameter in the circuit, and the change of the drive current to determine the size. Bypass is interference of the input signal as object, filtering and decoupling is the interference of output signal as the filter object, to prevent interference signal to return to power. This should be the essential difference between them. According to the requirements of the different power supply, the device is sometimes in the form of series, parallel, or their combination, for more than 10 kw power level of the power supply, usually adopt bulky cylindrical screw terminal condenser.
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