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The disadvantages of ultracapacitors battery principle _ super capacitor

by:SMiLer     2021-01-10
Super capacitor battery principle ultracapacitors also called gold capacitors, farad capacitors, energy storage by using polarization electrolyte, belongs to a kind of electric double layer capacitor. Because of the energy storage process does not produce chemical reaction, so the energy storage process is reversible, because of this super capacitor can be repeated charge and discharge hundreds of thousands of times. Ultracapacitors generally use activated carbon electrode materials, has a large area of absorption, electrostatic store more characteristics, are widely used in the new energy vehicles. Super capacitor has a capacity of capacitor is much larger than usual. Because of its capacity is large, external performance and the battery is the same, so also known as 'capacity battery' or 'gold' battery. Super capacitor cells also belongs to the electric double layer capacitors, it is the world of the electric double layer capacitor production capacity is one of the biggest, its basic principle and other kinds of electric double layer capacitors, is activated carbon by using porous electrodes and the electrolyte of electric double layer structure for large capacity. Traditional physical electrical energy stored in the capacitor from the separation of the charge on the two pieces of plate, between the two pieces of plate for vacuum ( Relative dielectric constant is 1) A layer of dielectric material (or The relative dielectric constant of epsilon) Isolation, capacitance value is: C = epsilon, A / 3. 6 πd ·10- 6 ( μF) With A plate area, d for medium thickness. The stored energy is: E = C ( ΔV) 2/2, which for the capacitance C, Δ V for the voltage drop between the plates. Visible, if want to get A larger capacitance, store more energy, must increase the area of A d or reduce medium thickness, but the scale space is limited, caused it to store electricity and store energy is smaller. Supercapacitors using activated carbon materials made of porous electrodes, at the same time in the relatively between porous carbon electrode in the electrolyte solution filling, when the applied voltage at both ends, relatively gathered electron-positron respectively, and the porous electrode and the positive and negative ions in the electrolyte solution due to electric field respectively gathered in contrast with positive and negative plates of interface, thus forming two collector layer, the equivalent of two capacitors in series, due to the activated carbon material with high specific surface area of 1200 m2 / g or higher ( A) the electrodes of the great area Porous electrode and the electrolyte and the interface between the distance less than 1 nm ( D) which received minimal medium thickness , according to the formula, you can see that in front of the electric double layer capacitor is bigger than the traditional physical capacitance of the capacitor value, specific capacity can be increased by more than 100 times, so that the electric capacity of unit weight of up to 100 f/g, and capacitance resistance also can maintain at very low levels, carbon materials have low cost, mature technology, etc. Making it possible to use for large power energy storage capacitor, and in the actual use, can be in series or in parallel in order to improve the output voltage or current. Ultracapacitors batteries 1, the large capacitance level with ferrari, the capacitance is much larger than the ordinary. 2, can instantly release the power of nearly 10 times higher than normal ones, and will not damage. 3, charging and discharging cycle life in more than one hundred thousand times, this is one of the biggest advantages, traditional battery normally only charge hundreds of times. 4, in 40 degrees to 60 degrees of environment temperature in normal use, traditional battery low temperature efficiency will be greatly reduced. 5, charged to maintain a super ability, leakage power is very small, the traditional charging battery regularly to maintain status. 6, charging fast, its speed is faster than batteries a few times, a few minutes to fill a car need electricity. 7, itself won't cause pollution to the environment, truly free maintenance, while the traditional battery is still there is pollution. The disadvantages of super capacity battery, 1 volume of its volume is larger, the volume rather than batteries, its storage capacity. 2 level, less power even at ferrari, but compared with the traditional battery, still less, according to the current technology, it is still not as the main reservoir of electric appliances, because its power only a few kilometres driven vehicle is.
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