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Structure and working principle of the super capacitor

by:SMiLer     2022-01-07
The details of the super capacitor structure depends on the application of super capacitor and use. Due to the manufacturers or specific application requirements, the material may be slightly different. All super capacitor in common is that they all contain a positive electrode, a negative electrode, and the diaphragm between the two electrodes, electrolyte fill by the two electrodes and diaphragm separating the porosity of the two. Super capacitor products has the following technical characteristics: ( 1) Fast charging. With more than 95% of the nominal capacity only 10 seconds to 10 minutes; ( 2) Long cycle life. The depth of the charge and discharge cycle can reach 1 ~ 500000 times, for example, Beijing modern remit to company HCC250F / 2. 7 v super capacitor and the Beijing star technology company production cycle life of the series capacitance in more than 500000 times; ( 3) High energy conversion efficiency. Large current energy cycle efficiency of 90%; ( 4) High power density. Up to 300 w/kg - 50000 w/kg for 5 ~ 10 times of the battery; Working principle of the super capacitor basic principle and other kinds of super capacitor of electric double layer capacitors, is activated carbon by using porous electrodes and the electrolyte of electric double layer structure for large capacity. Outstanding advantage is high power density, charge and discharge time is short, long cycle life, wide working temperature range, is one of the world has go into mass production capacity is one of the biggest in the electric double layer capacitor. Depending on the energy storage mechanism can be divided into the following two categories: 1, the electric double layer capacitors: on the electrode/solution interface is produced by the directional alignment of electrons or ions, charge of confrontation. On an electrode/electrolyte solution, can be in electronic conductive electrode and ionic conductive electric double layer is formed on the interface of electrolyte solution. When applying an electric field on the two electrodes, and Yin, cationic, respectively, in the solution to the migration of positive and negative electrodes, the electric double layer on the electrode surface; After cancel the electric field, the positive and negative charges on the electrode and solution of ions of opposite electric charge attraction and make the stability of electric double layer, the potential difference in positive and negative electrode produce relatively stable. At this time for a certain electrode, will be within a certain distance ( Dispersion layer) Produced with the same amount of charge on the electrode of the opposite sex ionic charge, keep it neutral; When the poles and external circuit connected electrode on the charge transfer and generate an electric current in the external circuit, the solution of the ion migration into the solution is electrically neutral, that is the charge and discharge principle of electric double layer capacitor. 2, Faraday quasi capacitance: its theoretical model is put forward by Conway first, is in the electrode surface and near surface or body of the 2 d or quasi two-dimensional space, electroactive material owe potential deposition, are highly reversible chemical absorption echo REDOX reaction, generation and electrode capacitance charging voltage. For Faraday quasi capacitance, the stored charge includes not only the process of the electric double layer on the storage, and including the electrolyte ions and the electrode active material of REDOX reaction. When the electrolyte ions ( Such as H +, OH - , K +, or Li +) Under the action of applied electric field by diffusion in the solution to the electrode/solution interface, can by the REDOX reaction on the interface to enter the body to the electrode surface active oxide phase, thus making a lot of charge is stored in the electrode. Discharge, these into oxide ions can return through the above the adverse reaction of REDOX reaction to the electrolyte, at the same time the release of the stored charge by external circuit, which is Faraday quasi capacitor charging and discharging mechanism.
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