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Lightning rod principle and the relationship of the capacitor

by:SMiLer     2021-01-09
Lightning rod, lightning rod definition, also known as lightning protection needle is used to protect buildings, tall trees, etc to avoid lightning device. Installed at the top of the protected objects smokes ShanQi, conform to the specifications of wires with the discharge net buried together. Lightning rod specifications must conform to GB standard, each a lightning rod, lightning protection category need high specification is different. When the thundercloud discharge it makes the ground electric field distortion when close to the ground. Form the local electric field in the top of the lightning rod, concentration of space, to influence the development of calcuated discharge direction, guide the thunder lightning discharge, again through the ground down lead and grounding device to introduce the lightning current to the earth, so that the protected objects from lightning strikes. The cause of the lightning destroyed buildings if not installed lightning rod on a tall building, then in the thunderstorm weather, charged clouds and tall buildings is constituted a capacitor. Needed to make the air ionization, electric field intensity reaches a certain value, according to the charged clouds and the distance between the tall buildings is certain, that the potential difference between them must be big enough to a certain value. Surface of the top of tall building is the right area of the condenser, compared with the lightning rod, the capacitance of the capacitor is large, when reach a very large, can achieve the but electric potential difference between the clouds and building air ionization degree, capacitor can discharge, and at this point, the electric field between the clouds and the floor is a significant amount of electric field, the instant energy into electricity, may damage to buildings. Lightning rod and the connection of capacitor for a charged conductor, electrostatic equilibrium, the charge distribution on the outer surface of the conductor, and the more sharp, charge the more dense, the stronger the electric field around the tip, thus easy to discharge. Lightning rod is made through this principle, in the thunderstorm weather by discharge in advance, so that the buildings to avoid lightning strike. Lightning rod and tall buildings than, with clouds of capacitor is the area is small ( Is the tip size) , so the capacitor capacitance are also small, according to the principle of the above, the lightning rod can accumulate less charge on electric potential difference between the clouds and the lightning rod to can make the air ionization degree, at this time due to the charge quantity is little, so the electric field can also small, when discharging lightning rod into electricity without damage. At the same time as the lightning rod by coarse wire directly on the ground, so when current flows through buildings, so the absolute safety of buildings. In thunderstorm weather, a charged clouds in the sky over tall buildings, the lightning rod and the buildings on the ceiling are a lot of charge, because of the lightning rod needles are pointed, and electrostatic induction, always gathered the most charge conductor tip. So it will be brought together most of the lightning rod, electrical charge. Lightning rod and the charged clouds formed another capacitor, because it is sharp, namely the poles look the size of the capacitor is small, capacitance is small, which means it can hold a charge very little. And it has brought together most of the charge, so, when the cloud is large, the electric charge on the lightning rod between the clouds and air can easily be breakdown, become a conductor. So, charged clouds and the lightning rod form pathways, and lightning rod and earthing. Lightning rod can guide people to charge on the clouds, make its not dangerous high-rise buildings, guarantee its safety. When lightning rod cut by a lightning strike, by flash, flash body by lightning waveform processing equipment, using the shell and the center has a 3 mm space between the ground rod, a coupling capacitance, at the same time, through an inductance coil grounding, shell ( Center ground rod) The line guide when approaching the ShanQi, due to the high frequency, inductance in open circuit state, shows capacitors for high frequency short circuit, so under the action of coupling capacitance, ShanQi surface electric field intensity increase rapidly, until triggered an avalanche process, thereby being able to discharge lightning current into the ground, immediately and effectively achieve the goal of lightning protection to protect security.
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