is developed in the 1960 s a new type of energy storage devices, and gradually to the market in the 80 s.
Since 1957, when American Becker, the first to declare patents of super capacitor, the development of the super capacitor is constantly, until 1983, when Japan's NEC first super capacitor to the commercial market, causing widespread interest, the super capacitor research and development boom across the globe, not only technology changes with each passing day, and application scope is expanding.
A principle of super capacitor, super capacitor also calls the electrochemical capacitance, unlike traditional electrostatic capacitors, mainly displays in the store much energy.
As an energy storage or output device, how much of the energy storage is the size of the capacitance.
Based on the mechanism of super capacitor energy storage and its principle can be divided into: 1.
The electrode interface P solution by electrons and ions or dipole orientational generated by electric double layer capacitors.
Electric double layer has the effect of storing electrical energy, the capacity of the capacitor can be to use the following formula to calculate: type, E for the size of the energy storage capacitor;
C for the electric capacity of capacitor;
V is the working voltage of capacitor.
Thus, the capacity of the electric double layer capacitor and electrode potential related to the properties of the material itself.
Usually in order to form a stable electric double layer, generally USES conductive performance good polarization of the electrode.
In the electrode surface or body in the two dimensional and quasi two dimensional space phase, electroactive material owe potential deposition, are highly reversible chemical adsorption, stripping or REDOX reaction, and Faraday quasi capacitor charging electrode potential.
In the electroactive material, as in a Faraday charge transfer chemical changes of electrochemical process, polarization of electrode or owe potential deposition REDOX reaction, similar to the capacitor charge and discharge behavior, and is different from the secondary battery, the difference is: (
Polarization of electrode voltage and power is almost linear relationship;
When a linear relationship between voltage and time t = d V/d K, capacitor charge and discharge current to a constant value Cd I = V/d t = CK.
Kinetics of this process is reversible, and secondary battery is different but similar to static electricity.
Faraday capacitance and the difference between electric double layer capacitors, electric double layer capacitors need to consume in the process of charging the electrolyte, and Faraday capacitance in the whole process of charging and discharging the electrolyte concentration remained relatively stable.
Faraday quasi capacitance is not only on the electrode surface, but also can be generated within the electrodes, the maximum charge and discharge capacity of electroactive ions on the surface of the material orientation and charge transfer speed control, so you can in a short period of time to carry on the charge transfer, which can obtain higher than power (
Than a power greater than 500 w/kg)
Two characteristics of super capacitor, super capacitor with excellent pulse charging and discharging and large capacity storage performance, single capacity has reached thousands of farah level is a kind of between electrostatic capacitor and battery energy storage element.
Compared with the ordinary capacitor and battery, supercapacitor has many incomparable advantages battery.
Has a very high power density.
Capacitor of the power density of battery 10 to 100 times, can achieve 10 kw/kg, can in a short time, released a few hundred to several thousand amperes of current.
This characteristic makes super capacitor is very suitable for occasions of high power output for a short time.
Super capacitor charging is electric double layer physical process of charging and discharging or rapid and reversible chemical processes on the surface of the electrode material, can use large current charging, can in a few seconds to a few minutes to complete the charging process, is a real quick charge.
The battery charge is need several hours to complete, use the quick charge also need tens of minutes.
Superior performance at low temperature.
Super capacitor charging and discharging process of the charge transfer on the surface of the electrode active material, mostly so capacity with temperature attenuation is very small.
Battery capacity attenuation in low temperature range can be as high as 70%.
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